Obesity As A Worldwide Epidemic
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized obesity as a worldwide epidemic affecting more than 500 million adults and paradoxically coexisting with undernutrition in both developing and industrialized countries. There also have been reports of an alarming increase in childhood obesity worldwide.
Obesity Contributes to Hundreds of Health Ailments
Obesity (excess body fat for stature) contributes to adverse health consequences such as:
- High blood pressure
- Blood lipid abnormalities
- Coronary heart disease
- Congestive heart failure
- Ischemic stroke
- Type 2 diabetes
- Gallbladder disease
- Several common cancers (including colorectal, uterine, and postmenopausal breast cancers)
- Reduced life expectancy.
Genes play a significant role in the regulation of body weight. Nevertheless, environmental factors such as calorie-rich diets and a sedentary lifestyle can be instrumental in determining how an individual’s genetic heritage will unfold. Dietary carbohydrates are not the problem in obesity.
Understanding the Body Mass Index
Height-weight tables as a reference for healthy weights have been supplanted by the parameter known as the body mass index (BMI). The BMI estimates total body fat, although it is less sensitive than using a skinfold caliper or other method to measure body fat indirectly.
The BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres: weight ÷ height = BMI. In 1997 the WHO recommended international adoption of the definition of a healthy BMI for adult women and men as between 18.5 and 24.9. A BMI lower than 18.5 is considered underweight, while a BMI of 25 to 29.9 denotes overweight and 30 or higher indicates obesity. Definitions of overweight and obesity are more difficult to quantify for children, whose BMI changes with age.
Maintaining Healthy Calories
A healthful eating plan for gradual weight loss in adults will likely contain about 1,200 to 1,500 kilocalories (kcal) per day, probably accompanied by a balanced vitamin and mineral supplement. A desirable weight loss is about one pound per week from fat stores (as opposed to lean tissue), which requires an energy deficit of 3,500 kcal, or about 500 kcal per day. Consuming less than 1,000 kcal per day is not recommended; a preferred approach would be to increase physical activity, which has the added benefit of helping to maintain lean tissue.
Individuals who are severely obese and unable to lose weight may, after medical consultation, consider weight-loss medications that suppress appetite or decrease nutrient absorption or even surgery to reduce the volume of the stomach or bypass it altogether. Carbohydrate-restricted diets, very-low-fat diets, and novelty diets—those in which one food or food group is emphasized—may result in weight loss but generally fail to establish the good dietary and exercise practices necessary to maintain the desired weight, and weight is often regained shortly after the diet is stopped.
A successful approach to long-term weight management requires establishing new patterns: eating healthfully, but eating less; engaging in regular physical activity; and changing behaviour patterns that are counterproductive, such as eating while watching television. Limiting intake of fatty foods, which are more energy-rich, is also helpful, as is eating smaller portions and drinking water instead of calorie-containing drinks. Low-fat foods are not always low in total calories, as the fat may be replaced by sugars, which themselves provide calories. Individuals who use artificial or non nutritive sweeteners do not necessarily reduce their total calorie intake.
The following articles are additional information you may need to improve your overall health and weight: